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Building a multi-lingual static site with Gatsby


(5 minute read)

This past week I ported hiddentao.com (the site you're reading this on) from Jekyll + Github pages over to Gatsby + Zeit. This change had been a long-time coming. The major reason for re-doing my site was to add support for multi-lingual posts. I chose Gatsby as the static site generator because it's built in React (which I use for my work daily) and thus enables an SPA (single-page app) experience out of the box. In this post I will outline the customizations I had to make in order to get Gatsby working the way I wanted.

However, before I do that, a short note on why I moved from Github pages to Zeit for hosting my site. Github pages supports Jekyll out of the box, which is why I had been hosting my site there until now. Once I switched to Gatsby I did initially try hosting the new site through Github pages as well (by storing publishable assets in a Git repo) but quickly realized that didn't make much sense since output changed considerably between builds.

Every publish commit was turning out to be huge, and being able to go back in history via Git commits wasn't a big enough benefit to out-weigh the cost. It seemed to me that the ability to go back in history made less sense in the generated output and more sense in the source code, and thus I didn't really need to use Git to publish the site. Since I was already using Zeit for other sites I'm hosting, it was a natural alternative choice. It also simplified my continous deployment flow as I no longer needed to push code back up to Github in order to deploy.

Setting up Gatsby for i18n

Now let's dive into how I setup the site using Gatsby. I followed the official Quick Start guide to get a simple Gastby site up and running. I decided to work on adding i18n support straight away. A quick search revealed gatsby-plugin-intl to be the best choice for this.

I had a few requirements that needed to be met:

  • All existing blog posts and pages from my current site had to retain their URLs (to avoid broken incoming links as well as to retain Disqus comments on blog posts).
  • Each different language version of each page needed to have its own URL, following a predictable URL pattern. Luckily gatsby-plugin-intl already took care of this.
  • If a given post or page didn't exist in a given language then it was to fall back to showing the default language (English) version.

Inside gatsby-config.js I setup gatsby-plugin-intl:

const supportedLanguages = [
  { id: 'en', label: 'English' },
  { id: 'zh-TW', label: '中文 (繁體)' },
const defaultLanguage = 'en'

module.exports = {
  siteMetadata: {
    siteUrl: 'https://hiddentao.com',
    title: `Hiddentao`,
    description: `Ramesh Nair's personal blog on technology and programming.`,
    author: `@hiddentao`,
  plugins: {
    // i18n
      resolve: `gatsby-plugin-intl`,
      options: {
        path: `${__dirname}/src/intl`,
        languages: supportedLanguages,
        // This prevents gatsby-plugin-intl from auto-redirecting to default language versions
        redirect: false,

The src/intl directory contains translated strings for each language. These would be the strings used for buttons, nav items, etc and NOT page content. Here is the src/intl/en.json (English) language file (initially I've just got strings for the language changing button):

  "en": "English",
  "zh-TW": "Chinese (Trad.)",
  "change-language": "Change language"

And the src/intl/zh-TW.json (Traditional Chinese) equivalent:

  "en": "英文",
  "zh-TW": "中文 (繁體)",
  "change-language": "換語言"

Multi-lingual markdown nodes

My existing content was in Markdown, and luckily Gatsby already has good support for handling this. However, I quickly realized that in order to meet my above requirements with respect to i18n I needed more control over Gatsby' internal page generation process. Specifically, I needed to control when and where the Markdown got transformed into HTML.

I decided that my Markdown files would sit under the following directory trees:

  /blog     <-- contains blog posts (like this one you're reading)
  /static   <-- contains static pages, e.g. "about", "code", "talks"

Within a given tree (either blog or layout), a page would be represented by a folder containing files, each of which represented the given page in a different language. For example, the about page would be stored in the file system as:

  /en.md      <-- English version
  /zh-TW.md   <-- Chinese (traditional) version

Once generated the above two versions of about would be available at the following URL paths:

/about            <- English version
/zh-TW/about      <- Chinese (traditional) version

Inside gatsby-config.js I added a resolver to collect all files under the src/pages/markdown tree:

// gatsby-config.js
  plugins: [
    // markdown-driven pages
      resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`,
      options: {
        name: `markdown`,
        path: `${__dirname}/src/pages/markdown`,

Then, inside gatsby-node.js I hook into various Gatsby Node APIs to actually process the markdown files.

Create internal node representations of each Markdown file
exports.onCreateNode = ({ node, actions, getNodes }) => {
  const { createNodeField } = actions

  if (_isMarkdownNode(node)) {
    // pageType = "blog" or "static"
    // pageId = page slug
    // lang = "en" or "zh-TW"
    const { pageType, pageId, lang } = _getMarkdownNodeIdAndLanguage(node)

    // these values are extracted from within the markdown
    const { data: { title, date, draft }, content: body } = _loadMarkdownFile(node)

    const pageData = {
      type: pageType,
      path: _generatePagePath({ pageType, pageId, date }),
      draft: !!draft,
      versions: []

    // if is default language node then load in versions in other languages
    if (lang === defaultLanguage) {
      // generate all versions of the node (including default language version)
      getNodes().forEach(n => {
        if (_isMarkdownNode(n)) {
          const r = _getMarkdownNodeIdAndLanguage(n)

          if (r.pageId === pageId) {
            const gm = _loadMarkdownFile(n)

              lang: r.lang,
              summary: gm.data.summary,
              title: gm.data.title,
              date: gm.data.date,
              markdown: gm.content,

    // this adds all the data above to Gatsby's internal representation of the node
      name: 'page',
      value: pageData,

  return node

Note: To see the implementation of _isMarkdownNode() and other methods please see the full source code.

Let's say the about page has the following two language versions:

  • src/pages/markdown/static/about/en.md:
title: About me
summary: Me
date: '2019-01-01'
**This** is _me_.
  • src/pages/markdown/static/about/zh-TW.md:
title: 关于我
summary: 我
date: '2019-01-02'
**这** 是 _我_.

The onCreateNode method described above would generate the following pageData:

  pageId: "about",
  type: "static",
  path: "/about",
  lang: "en"
  date: "2019-01-01",
  draft: false,
  versions: [
      lang: "en",
      summary: "Me",
      title: "About me"
      date: "2019-01-01",,
      markdown: "**This** is _me_."
      lang: "zh-TW",
      summary: "我",
      title: "关于我"
      date: "2019-01-02",,
      markdown: "**这** 是 _我_."

Thus, when it comes time to generate this page the pageData node field contains all the information needed to generate this page in all its supported languages.

Note that if a zh-TW version of the page wasn't available then the corresponding entry inside the versions array above would not exist. Thus, at render time I ensure I fall back to the available default language version where needed.

Generating multi-lingual pages

Inside gatsby-node.js I implement the createPages API to generates pages from the node objects:

exports.createPages = async ({ actions, graphql, getNode }) => {
  const { createPage, createNodeField } = actions

  // fetch the blog posts in reverse chronological order so that we can have
  // them know where they sit in the chain
  const { data: { allFile: { nodes: blogPages } } } = await graphql(`
      allFile( filter: { fields: { page: { type: { eq: "blog" } } } }, sort: { order:DESC, fields: fields___page___date } ) {
        nodes {
  _createMarkdownPages({ pages: blogPages, getNode, createPage }, index => {
    const newerPageId = 0 < index ? blogPages[index - 1].id : null
    const olderPageId = (blogPages.length - 1) > index ? blogPages[index + 1].id : null
    return { newerPageId, olderPageId }

  // now let's generate the static pages
  const { data: { allFile: { nodes: staticPages } } } = await graphql(`
      allFile( filter: { fields: { page: { type: { eq: "static" } } } } ) {
        nodes {
  _createMarkdownPages({ pages: staticPages, getNode, createPage })

The first thing to note is that even if there are multiple language versions of a given page, the code only generates a single page - one representing the default language version. Thus, taking our example about page above, the code tells Gatsb to generate the /about version but not the /zh-TW/about version. This is because the gatsby-plugin-intl plugin internally ensures that the /zh-TW/about relative URL will be available regardless.

const _createMarkdownPages = ({ pages, getNode, createPage }, cb) => {
  pages.forEach(({ id, relativePath }, index) => {
    const node = getNode(id)
    const { fields: { page: { path: pagePath, lang } } } = node

    if (defaultLanguage === lang) {
        path: pagePath,
        component: path.resolve(`src/templates/pageTemplate.js`),
        context: {
          ...(cb ? cb(index, node) : null)

The _createMarkdownPages function above uses the page template to actually generate the pages. It accepts a callback as a final parameter - the output of this callback is merged into the page context. This context can then be used in the graphql query within the page template load in additional data for the page:

export const pageQuery = graphql`
  fragment FileFields on File {
    fields {
      page {
        versions {

  query($relativePath: String!, $newerPageId: String, $olderPageId: String) {
    current: file( relativePath: {  eq: $relativePath } ) {
    newer: file( id: { eq: $newerPageId } ) {
    older: file( id: { eq: $olderPageId } ) {
    site {
      siteMetadata {

As you can see, for each blog post I load in the next and previous blog posts according to chronological ordering - this is what lets me generate the navigation links at the bottom (see the bottom of this post for an example).

Multi-lingual rendering

The page template rendering function needs to take into account the currently selected language, and fallback to rendering the default language if necessary:

import { IntlContextConsumer } from "gatsby-plugin-intl"

export default function Template({ data }) {
  return (
      {({ language: currentLanguage }) => (
          newer={safeGet(data.newer, 'fields.page')}
          older={safeGet(data.older, 'fields.page')}

The IntlContextConsumer context provider from gatsby-plugin-intl will always provide the active language. Using this the Page component (see code) can loop through the versions of the page and find the matching language version to display at the time of display.

Finally, if you look at the about page on this site, you will see a language switcher (see code). This utilises gatsby-plugin-intl to make switching between language versions very easy.

What can be improved?

I use the Link component from gatsby-plugin-intl to generate internal page links. This component will generate the correct link for the current language but it doesn't check to see if the page being linked to has a version in the current language - it would be good to add logic for this!